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Earlier Ancient Egyptian Mortuary Texts Variability

MORTEXVAR looks into the Ancient Egyptian Pyramid and Coffin Texts (c 2350-1550 BC), and other related materials, for changes in the language, spellings, texts, beliefs, material culture, social data, and historical context.

The photograph is the courtesy of the Middle Kingdom Theban Project



This interdisciplinary (philology, linguistics, graphemics, cultural studies, digital technologies) project proposes a nuanced appraisal of the construction and function of the mortuary texts from Old and Middle Kingdom Egypt (2350-1550 BC) using ‛variability’ as an explanatory concept and an electronic-geared corpus-driven approach. It focuses on central cultural issues concerning the ritual context, archaeological trace, ideological interpretation, socio-cultural function and philological text-forming and transmission of the texts devoted to ensuring a post-mortem activity for the deceased from the ancient Egyptian elite. Research questions concentrate on two main axes:

  • How were earlier ancient Egyptian mortuary texts shaped the way they are? Was there a core of texts from one focus or multiple foci that implemented modifications and/or innovations depending on the cultural changes through time and space?

  • How can this materialize in the texts and their material context? How can we properly value the weight of tradition and innovation in the process of creating and transmitting these texts?



MORTEXVAR is mainly concerned with changes occurring in the mainstream mortuary texts of the early stages of ancient Egypt, the so-called Pyramid Texts and the Coffin Texts. Other related texts, including the so-called Book of the Dead or the Letters to the Dead, will be on the rear mirror as well.



MORTEXVAR focuses on changes, which are inherently hard to grasp, in that they can adopt many shapes, from mere mistakes to the creation of new traditions, through reinterpretations of different degrees (versions, pastiches, repetitions, omissions...). Furthermore, to the modern observer, these changes appear intertwined within more than one "sphere", including writing, language, textual units and artefacts.

  • 2019-2024. The Earlier Ancient Egyptian Mortuary Texts Variability (2018-T1/HUM-10215). “Atracción de Talento” Programme. Comunidad de Madrid.

  • 2024.2025. Texts in 3D (SBPLY/23/180225/000093). Junta de Comunidades de Castilla-La Mancha.
  • 2024-2026. Text mining the Coffin Texts (CNS2023-144010). Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades.

Photographs are the courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Home: Research


Project director

PhD in Egyptology (École Pratique des Hautes Études, Paris 2008), Carlos is an "Atracción de Talento" Researcher at the University of Alcalá (Alcalá de Henares, Madrid). He coordinates the Red Iberoamericana de Investigadores en Próximo Oriente Antiguo) with Roxana Flammini, co-writes the academic blog Egygraph with Angela McDonald, is an epigrapher for the Middle Kingdom Theban Project, a tutor of Ancient Studies (Egyptology) at the University of Glasgow and a fellow of the Academia de España at Rome. Carlos is mainly interested in empirical linguistics, graphemics and text analysis; he concentrates on the Old and Middle Kingdom mortuary texts.


Doctoral fellow

Sika Pedersen holds a Bachelor and a Master of Arts in Egyptology from the University of Copenhagen (Denmark), with a MA semester at the Department of Archaeology, Classics and Egyptology, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom). During her MA, Sika taught Middle Egyptian courses and ancient Egyptian history courses in her capacity as teaching assistant at the University of Copenhagen, and has been working as a research assistant transcribing several administrative and literary New Kingdom ostraca and writing tablets. In January 2020, Sika is starting a three-year PhD fellowship in Egyptology at the University of Alcalá as part of the MORTEXVAR project studying the ancient Egyptian mortuary texts from the Old and Middle Kingdom. Her main interests are ancient Egyptian administration both on institutional and private levels, and ancient Egyptian textual material, especially hieratic.


IT specialist

Graduated in engineering in telecommunications technologies from Universidad de Alcalá, Anthonny specializes in creating web applications with RESTful API paradigm, using Django Rest Framework. He has knowledge in the use of databases both relational (with MySQL, PostgreSQL among others) and non-relational like MongoDB. Currently, Anthonny is a Software developer at Making Science. He has previously worked in the Bankia accounting system, in an accounting system for Mapfre, and in the design of a multiplatform application for online medical assistance.


Research Assistant

César holds a MA in Egyptology from the University of Liverpool and is a web developer. With a strong interdisciplinary profile, he runs research within the MORTEXVAR and the OCR-PT-CT and TTAE projects.

He has recently created and published an Open Access Osiris Spelling Software that collects all spellings for the Osiris name from Middle Kingdom mortuary documents.


Database assistant

Graduated in Art History from Universidad Complutense, Noelia works in linking De Buck's hieroglyphic transcription of the Coffin Texts to the MORTEXVAR database.


Social media manager

A former web developer by trade and trained in Egyptology at the University of Alcalá, Ernesto’s interest with both Egyptology and public engagement and science communication goes back a long way. Author of the blog, he is an honorary collaborator of the History of Art Museum (MuHAr, Montevideo, Uruguay) and in charge of its Middle Egyptian courses, as well as part of the “Proyecto de Conservación e Investigación de la tumba de Neferhotep (TT49)” under the supervision of M. Violeta Pereyra (Argentina), where he helps in the digitalization and translation of the inscriptions of the Theban Tomb 49 (Luxor, Egypt) in addition to being responsible for the project website.


Social media manager. Content-creator and video-editor.

Professor of Spanish Language and Literature at the University of Alicante, specialising in Linguistic Teacher Training for Primary Education. She writes the blog Piedras de Rosetta, and collaborates in cultural podcasts such as “El Abrazo del Oso” and “Coffee Break: Señal y Ruido”.Her main interests are Computational Linguistics and Ancient Languages, ancient Mythology and the Origin of Writing.



Anne Landborg is a doctor in Egyptology from University of Liverpool (Manifestations of the Dead in Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts, 2014) with a MA in Egyptology from Uppsala University, Sweden. Former employments include University of Liverpool, Uppsala University and University of Birmingham, where she has taught religion, art, history, literature, and language. Her research interests are within Egyptian religion where she focuses on textual and epigraphic data to investigate mechanisms of ritual practices, how identities were presented in texts and art, and how religious texts were used and transmitted over different periods.


Database assistant

BA in Journalism (Universidad Complutense, Madrid), BA in History (UNED) and PhD student in Spanish Philology (Universidade da Coruña), Nieves has recently completed the MA studies in Egyptology (Universidad de Alcalá) and has taken courses at the Egypt Exploration Society. She has worked for radio, press agencies and newspapers, and, as a passionate populariser of ancient Egypt, she has published lately on the Amigos de la Egiptología blog and the Boletín MAN. Nieves contributes to the project as a member of the translation team of the Coffin Texts into Spanish.



PhD in Egyptology (University of Jaén), Luisa García is a Margarita Salas postdoctoral research fellow and visiting researcher at the University of Belgrade, where she conducts a research project based on social network analysis in Egyptology. Luisa is also deputy director of the archaeological mission of the Jaén University Qubbet el-Hawa Project (Aswan, Egypt). She specialises in local Egyptian administration, prosopography, material culture, burial customs and memorial culture of the First Intermediate Period and the Middle Kingdom. Her contribution to the project will focus on providing a fresh social perspective, trying to detect and reconstruct the social networks of the individuals mentioned in the textual sources from the MORTEXVAR database in connection to other Egyptian monuments and archaeological objects.  


Database Assistant

BA in Art History (Universidad Complutense de Madrid) and MA in Egyptology (Universidad de Alcalá), Pilar Moreno has also taken courses in Middle Egyptian at Asociación Española de Egiptología and the Universidad Autónoma of Barcelona. Pilar has experience in database management and graphic design and currently focuses on Egyptological research. She contributes to the project as a member of the translation team of the Coffin Texts into Spanish.  


Doctor in Egyptology from Lyon 2 University (France), Gersande Eschenbrenner Diemer is a "María Zambrano" researcher, Universidad de Alcalá and research associate at Laboratoire ArScAn UMR 7041 Nanterre (France).
She specializes in the study of woodcraft: from artefact production to the economic, religious and social wood networks.
She has been Marie-Curie fellow at the Institute of Archaeology of the University College of London (2016-2018) developing a research project around woodcraft as a societal tracer through a global approach, and a postdoctoral fellow at Universidad de Jaén (Spain). Since 2014, she is a member of the archaeological missions of Qubbet el-Hawa (Aswan), Deir el-Medina (Luxor) and Islamic Cairo, Fustat (Cairo) for the study of wooden furniture and identification of production workshops.

Doctor in Egyptology from the University of Pisa, Gianluca Miniaci is Associate Professor in Egyptology at the same university, director of the archaeological mission to Zawyet el-Maiyitin (Menya, Egypt), deputy-director of the University of Pisa excavation at Thebes, in the cemetery of Dra Abu el-Naga. He is editor-in-chief of the international series Middle Kingdom Studies (Golden House Publications, London), of the Journal of Egyptian History (Brill, Leiden), and of the series Ancient Egypt in Context (Cambridge University Press).
He has been Marie Curie Research Fellow at the École Pratique des Hautes Études, Paris, and at the Institute of Archaeology, UCL, London.
He has extensively published on the history, archaeology and the funerary culture in ancient Egypt.

PhD in Egyptology at the University of Pennsylvania, Antonio Morales is Associate Professor of Egyptology at the Seminar of Ancient History in the University of Alcalá (UAH, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid), and the Director of the Middle Kingdom Theban Project.
Previously, he was Lecturer in Egyptology at Freie Universität Berlin.
He is currently organizing an Egyptological program at the University of Alcalá, mainly focused on pharaonic history, religion, language, and culture. The new program already includes courses on Egyptian language (Middle Egyptian, hieratic, Late Egyptian), Egyptian literature, and ancient Egyptian magic and religion.
He specialises in the material philology of Old and middle Kingdom mortuary texts, and the history of the beginning of the Middle Kingdom. Among other topics, he has published extensively on the textual transmission, text orality and entextualization of the Pyramid Texts.

Doctor in Egyptology from the University of Copenhagen, Rune Nyord is Assistant Professor of Ancient Egyptian Art and Archaeology at Emory University, Atlanta, editor of the ‘Egyptology’ area of the UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, and external examiner for Egyptology, University of Copenhagen.

He has been Research Associate at the Ägyptologisches Seminar and SFB 980 ‘Episteme in Bewegung’, Freie Universität Berlin; and Lecturer, Research Associate (McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research), and Lady Wallis Budge Junior Research Fellow (Christ’s College) at the University of Cambridge.

He has extensively researched and published in cognitive linguistics and anthropology applied to ancient Egyptian topics such as the conception of the body, post-mortem individual identity, and visual perception.



Doctor in Egyptology from the Universität Basel, Andréas Stauder is Full Professor (directeur d’études) of Egyptian at the École Pratique des Hautes Études, IVe Section, Université PSL, Paris.
He is the scientific co-editor of the section ‛Language’ of the UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, University of California Los Angeles. He has been the director of the Research team EA 4519 ‘Égypte ancienne: archéologie, langue, religion’ (EPHE), and of the Initiative de Recherche Interdisciplinaire Stratégique ‘Scripta-PSL: Histoire et pratiques de l’écrit’ (PSL). In Basel, he has directed the research projects ‘Materialität und Semantik komplexer Schriftsysteme’ (National Center of Competence and Research ‛eikones’, Swiss National Science Foundation & Universität Basel), and ‘The Old Egyptian Verb: Functions in Text’ (Universität Basel).
Prior to joining the EPHE, PSL, he has held a postdoctoral appointment at Universität Basel, a postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Chicago, and has been an invited lecturer at the Université de Liège.
He has published extensively on the ancient Egyptian language, the Egyptian writing system, and Middle Egyptian literature.

PhD in Egyptology at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Zsuzsanna Végh is currently a postdoctoral fellow at the Institute for Advanced Studies in the Humanities in Edinburgh as well as Tutor in Egyptology at the Universities of Edinburgh and Glasgow. She has been awarded prestigious fellowships in Germany (such as the travel grant of the German Archaeological Institute) and has been visiting scholar at the University of Oxford.
Her research focuses on ancient Egyptian religion, in particular on how a cult of a new god (Osiris) was established and integrated into the regional and interregional theological system in the Old and Middle Kingdom, how religious texts were produced, in which contexts they were used and how these contexts influenced their transmissions. She has published and presented on the topic and is currently preparing a monograph on the cult of Osiris in Abydos. She is a member of the Hungarian Archaeological Mission to Thebes, South Khokha Project and has been involved in various museum projects all over Europe (State Museum of Egyptian Art in Munich, Museum of Fine Arts in Budapest, the National Museum of Scotland, and the British Museum).


Home: Research

LEIRE OLABARRIA, Lecturer, University of Birmingham
ROBERTO DÍAZ HERNÁNDEZ, Beatriz Galindo Professor, Universidad de Jaén
JÓNATAN ORTIZ GARCÍA, Professor, Universidad Complutense de Madrid
JOSUÉ SANTOS SAAVEDRA, Researcher, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona
ANA CATARINA APOLINÀRIO DE ALMEIDA, Researcher, Universidade de Lisboa
IKER BARRIALES VALBUENA, Researcher, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid
JULIA HAMILTON, Professor, Macquarie University, Sydney
VERONIKA DULÍKOVÁ, Researcher, Charles University, Prague
MARIE HLOUCHOVÁ PETERKOVÁ, Researcher, Charles University, Prague
ANGELA McDONALD, Lecturer, University of Glasgow
JEAN-PIERRE PÄTZNICK, Researcher, Université Paris-Sorbonne, Paris
SERIA YAMAZAKI, Professor, Waseda University, Tokyo
CHRISTELLE ALVAREZ, Professor, Brown University, Providence
ANNE LANDBORG, Researcher, Independent scholar
YANNICK A. WIECHMANN, Researcher, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn
JORKE GROTENHUIS, Researcher, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
M. VICTORIA ALMANSA-VILLATORO, Researcher,  Harvard University
DINA SEROVA, Researcher, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
ELISABETH KRUCK, Researcher, Universität Wien
JAMES P. ALLEN, Professor Emeritus, Brown University, Providence
PASCAL VERNUS, Professor Emeritus, École Pratique des Hautes Études, Paris
MYKOLA TARASENKO, Research Fellow at the Faculty of Asian and Middle Eastern Studies, University of Oxford










  • Gracia Zamacona, C. (ed.). Variability in the earlier Egyptian mortuary texts (Harvard Egyptological Studies 21). Boston & Leiden: Brill.

  • Gracia Zamacona, C. Los Textos de los Ataúdes del antiguo Egipto: variabilidad, legitimación y diálogo (Ancient Near East Monographs 32). Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature.

  • Gracia Zamacona, C. Textos de los Ataúdes. In A.J. Morales (ed.), Cultos, mitos y prácticas mágicas en el antiguo Egipto: textos religiosos (2800 a.C. - 1000 d.C.).  Barcelona: UAB (in press).

  • Gracia Zamacona, C. Variability in the earlier Egyptian mortuary texts: Two possible issues in diachrony: ʿ / ỉ / r / zero variation, and the nature of the oblique agent. In A. Pillon (ed.), Chronologies and contexts of the First Intermediate Period (Bibliothèque d'Étude). Cairo: IFAO (20 pages).

  • Gracia Zamacona, C. Modulating semograms: Some procedures for semantic specification and re-categorization in the Pyramid Texts and other mortuary texts. In J. Cervelló & M. Orriols (ed.), Signs, language and culture: the semograms of the Pyramid Texts between iconicity and referential reality (Harvard Egyptological Studies) (32 pages)

  • Gracia Zamacona, C. On the donation formula di.(w) m Hz.wt n.t xr nsw n Aperson r Btemple: a case of diffuse ditransitive construction. TBD (12 pages).

  • Barriales Valbuena, I., C. Gracia Zamacona, C. Guerra Méndez & A. Landborg. Variability of Middle Kingdom mortuary texts: Three case studies. (Monograph). (Book contract signed).



  • Gracia Zamacona, Carlos (organiser). I Taller de Estudios Interdisciplinares sobre el Antiguo Egipto (international workshop with contributions by J. Santos, J. Ortiz, L. Olabarria, I. Barriales, A.J. Morales and R. Díaz). Universidad de Alcalá

  • Gracia Zamacona, Carlos (contributor). VIII Congreso Nacional del Centro de Estudios del Próximo Oriente: EX ORIENTE AD LIMINA, Universidade da Coruña

  • Gracia Zamacona, Carlos (invited talk). Textos para un sacerdote lector y tres médicos de la corte en el Egipto del Reino Medio (c 2000-1500 a.Jc.). Seminar Dvctvs II, CSIC, Madrid


  • Gracia Zamacona, Carlos (invited talk). Tachando de la lista: marcas de verificación oral en los Textos de los Ataúdes del Antiguo Egipto (c. 2000-1500 a.JC.). Seminar Dvctvs III, CSIC, Madrid

  • Gracia Zamacona, Carlos (organiser). Taller internacional online Lenguas modernas y antiguas: diferencias y similitudes en el estudio de la semántica verbal (International workshop online, with contributions by Márcia Cançado & Luana Amaral, José Virgilio García Trabazo, Carlos Gracia Zamacona, Maria Agustina Morando and Christophe Rico). Red Iberoamericana de Investigadores en Próximo Oriente Antiguo.



  • Gracia Zamacona, Carlos (invited seminar TBD). Variability in ancient Egyptian mortuary texts: The project MORTEXVAR. Higher School of Economics, Moscow. (Cancelled).

  • Gracia Zamacona, Carlos (organiser). International online MORTEXVAR conference (with the publication of a collective volume in 2024).

  • Gracia Zamacona, Carlos (invited talk). De tejones y máscaras: ¿un nuevo "libro" de los Textos de los Ataúdes para llevar maat a Ra? International conference Perspectivas sobre el Cercano Oriente Antiguo: a 20 años de la fundación del CEHAO (Buenos Aires / Online; organised by Roxana Flammini & Juan Manuel Tebes).


  • Gracia Zamacona, Carlos. The MORTEXVAR project. Invited talk at Università di Pisa (23 March).

  • Gracia Zamacona, Carlos. The MORTEXVAR project. Invited talk at École Pratique des Hautes Études, Paris (31 March).

  • Gracia Zamacona, Carlos. The MORTEXVAR project at the workshop MagArt. Invited to round table at Universitat de Barcelona (18 April).

  • Gracia Zamacona, Carlos. The MORTEXVAR project. Invited talk at Freie Universität Berlin (9 May).

  • Gracia Zamacona, Carlos. The MORTEXVAR project. Invited talk at Univerzita Karlova, Prague (24 May).

  • Gracia Zamacona, Carlos. The MORTEXVAR project. Invited talk at the Tenth European Conference of Egyptologists. Egypt 2023: Perspectives of Research. Institute of Mediterranean and Oriental Cultures, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (12-16 June).

  • Gracia Zamacona, Carlos. The MORTEXVAR project. Chairman (religious texts) at Tenth European Conference of Egyptologists. Egypt 2023: Perspectives of Research. Institute of Mediterranean and Oriental Cultures, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (12-16 June).

  • Gracia Zamacona, Carlos. The MORTEXVAR project. Participant of two panels (linguistics and religious texts) at the Tenth European Conference of Egyptologists. Egypt 2023: Perspectives of Research. Institute of Mediterranean and Oriental Cultures, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (12-16 June).

  • Guerra Méndez, C. Database of Osiris spellings in the CT. Communication to CIJIE II (28 June).

  • Gracia Zamacona, Carlos. The MORTEXVAR & OCR-PT-CT projects. International Conference Ancient Egypt - New Technology. University of Naples "L'Orientale", Naples (5-7 July).

  • Gracia Zamacona, Carlos. The MORTEXVAR project. 1st RIIPOA conference, Online / UAH / UCA  (12-15 September).


  • Gracia Zamacona, Carlos. Proyectos digitales sobre los textos mortuorios en egipcio de la primera fase, desarrollados en la Universidad de Alcalá (2019-2026). Invited talk at the CEHAO (online / Buenos Aires, October).

  • Eschenbrenner Diemer, Gersande & Gracia Zamacona, Carlos (organisers). SHAPED international conference (online / Universidad de Alcalá, 10-11 December).




  • Gracia Zamacona, C. The MORTEXVAR project: Valuing variability in the ancient Egyptian mortuary texts. Cadmo – Revista de História Antiga 29: 275-280.

  • Gracia Zamacona, C. (invited lecture) Recursos para el estudio de la lengua y la escritura egipcias (Universidad de Jaén).

  • Gracia Zamacona, C. (invited lecture). Textos e imágenes en el antiguo Egipto: continuidad y separación (Red Iberoamericana de Investigadores en Próximo Oriente Antiguo (RIIPOA), la Asociación Biblica Argentina (ABA), el Instituto de Investigaciones de Ciencias Sociales (IICS), y el Centro de Estudios de Historia del Antiguo Oriente (CEHAO), Buenos Aires).

  • Gracia Zamacona, C. (invited lecture). El verbo egipcio (Asociación Oriens, Madrid).

  • Gracia Zamacona, C., S. Pedersen, A. Contreras & I. Barriales Valbuena. "Semana de la Ciencia 2021” (Comunidad de Madrid - Universidad de Alcalá).

  • Gracia Zamacona, C. (invited lecture). Aproximaciones a la Egiptología desde la lingüística empírica (Universidad de Granada).



  • Gracia Zamacona, C. Interview at Radiotelevisión del Principado de Asturias (podcast in Spanish, 15/07/2023).

  • Gracia Zamacona, C. (Invited seminar) Introducción a la lengua y escritura egipcias. Oriens: Asociación de Estudios del Oriente Próximo, Madrid.

  • Gracia Zamacona, C. "Semana de la Ciencia 2023” (Comunidad de Madrid - Universidad de Alcalá, 6/11/2023).

  • Gracia Zamacona, C. Filología material y digital de los textos del antiguo Egipto. Universidad Complutense (12/12/2023).

  • Gracia Zamacona, C. Horus, el halcón: dios, rey y niño. Universidad de Alcalá (15/12/2023).



  • 2019-. Multiple courses (undergraduate and master levels) in ancient Egyptian philology, history, literature and linguistics (Middle Egyptian and Hieratic), Universidad de Alcalá.

  • 2019-. Master's course (Ancient Mediterranean). Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (Ancient History)

  • 2019-. Doctoral co-supervision (Caridad Villalgordo, Akhet en los Textos de las Pirámides y de los Ataúdes), Universidad de Alcalá (Co-supervisor: A. Morales, Universidad de Alcalá).

  • 2020-. Doctoral supervision (Sika Pedersen, Textual variation in Middle Kingdom burials: A study on non-royal burial chambers and inner/outer coffins), Universidad de Alcalá (External supervisor: R. Nyord, Emory University, Atlanta).

  • 2020- Online continuing education and Master's programme in Egyptology (4 courses: intermediate and advanced Middle Egyptian, Hieratic, Literature). Universidad de Alcalá.

  • 2021. Workshop on material philology: Tradición e innovación: Formas y métodos de transmisión textual e iconografía en el Egipto del Reino Antiguo y Medio (with A.J. Morales, R. Díaz Hernández & G. Eschenbrenner Diemer).

  • 2022. The MORTEXVAR seminars. 3 workshops on material philology and mortuary texts by invited scholars.

  • 2022-. Doctoral co-supervision (Macarena Nicolás, El Lago de fuego en el Libro de los Muertos y textos relcionados), Universidad de Alcalá (Co-supervisor: A. Morales, Universidad de Alcalá).

  • 2022-. Doctoral co-supervision (Emiliano Buis, Title TBD), University of Maastricht (Main supervisor: A. Parise).





  • Expert (Egyptology and Linguistics). Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET). Buenos Aires.

  • Reviewer (Egyptology). Boletín de la Asociación Española de Egiptología, Madrid


  • Reviewer (Egyptology). Conference NetWood. Wood Networks in Egypt from Antiquity to Islamic Times. University College of London.

  • Reviewer (Egyptology). Harvard Egyptological Studies (Brill), Harvard University

  • Editor (Egyptology, Linguistics and Graphemics). Enciclopedia de los Mundos Antiguos (EDMA), Universidad de Alcalá

  • Editor (Egyptology, Linguistics and Graphemics). Revista de los Mundos Antiguos (REDMA), Universidad de Alcalá

  • Series co-editor. Estudios Orientales – Monografías RIIPOA. Red Iberoamericana de Investigadores en Próximo Oriente Antiguo, Alcalá de Henares / Buenos Aires.

  • Registered expert (Egyptology and Linguistics). Asociación Universitaria Iberoamericana de Postgrado, Salamanca (Spain)


  • Peer reviewer (Egyptology). Monographs, Universidad de Jaén Editorial

  • Registerd expert (Egyptology and Linguistics). Agencia de Calidad de las universidades madrileñas, Fundación para el Conocimiento Madrimasd, Madrid Region Government

  • Registered expert (Egyptology and Linguistics). V Plan Regional de Investigación Científica e Innovación Tecnológica (PRICIT), Madrid Region Government

  • Editor (Egyptology). Lecturas Sociales: Series Monográficas del Instituto de Investigaciones de la Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad Católica Argentina, Buenos Aires


  • Assessor for the Spanish homologation of foreign PhD. Universidad de Alcalá

  • PhD external assessor for international mention. Universidad de Jaén

  • PhD external assessor for international mention. Universidad de Sevilla

  • Scientific secretary (Egyptology). Monografías del Oriente Antiguo (series), Alcalá de Henares (Madrid)

  • Peer reviewer. Polis (journal), Alcalá de Henares (Madrid)

  • Peer reviewer. Aula Orientalis, Barcelona

  • Registered expert EX2019D345576 (Egyptology and Linguistics). European Commission

  • Scientific board member. Current Research in Egyptology 2019, Alcalá de Henares

Home: Research


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Allen, J.P. 2006. The Egyptian Coffin Texts VIII: Middle Kingdom copies of Pyramid Texts. Chicago.
Allen, J.P. 2013. A new concordance of the Pyramid Texts. Providence.
Allen, J.P. 2015. The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts. Atlanta.
Assmann, J. 1990. Egyptian mortuary liturgies. In S. Israeilt-Groll (ed.), Studies in Egyptology presented to Miriam Lichtheim (2 vols.). Jerusalem, I, 1-45.
Assmann, J. 2000. Images et rites de la mort dans l'Egypte ancienne : L'apport des liturgies funéraires. Paris.
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Bickel, S. & B. Mathieu (eds.). 2004. D’un monde à l’autre: Textes des Pyramides et Textes des Sarcophages (Bibliothèque d’Étude 139). Cairo.
Buchberger, H. 1993. Transformation und Transformat. Wiesbaden.
Buck, A. de. 1936-1961. The Egyptian Coffin Texts I-VII. Chicago.
Faulkner, R.O. 1973-1978. The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts I-III. Oxford.
Gestermann, L. 2005. Die Überlieferung ausgewählter altägyptischer Totenliteratur (“Sargtexte”) in spätzeitlichen Grabanlagen I-II. Wiesbaden.
Gracia Zamacona, C. 2013. A database for the Coffin Texts. In S. Polis et al. (eds.), Texts, Languages & Information Technology in Egyptology. Liège, 139-155.
Gracia Zamacona, C. 2020. Some remarks for a multidimensional approach to the Coffin Text unique spells. In A. Jiménez Serrano & A. Morales (eds.), Middle Kingdom palace culture and its echoes in the provinces (Harvard Studies in Egyptology, 2018), 35 pages.
Gracia Zamacona, C. (ed.). 2024a.
Variability in the earlier Egyptian mortuary texts (Harvard Egyptological Studies 21). Boston & Leiden: Brill.
Gracia Zamacona, C. 2024b. Los Textos de los Ataúdes del antiguo Egipto: variabilidad, legitimación y diálogo (Ancient Near East Monographs 32). Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature..
Hays, H. 2012. The organization of the Pyramid Texts: typology and disposition I-II. Leiden.
Hussein, R. 2011. Notes on copies of Pyramid Text spells. In Z. Hawass (ed.), Scribe of justice. Cairo, 217-233.
Jiménez Serrano, A. & A.J. Morales (eds.). 2021. Middle Kingdom palace culture and its echoes in the provinces (Harvard Egyptological Studies 12). Leiden & Boston: Brill.

Mathieu, B. 2004. La distinction entre Textes des Pyramides et Textes des Sarcophages est-elle légitime? In S. Bickel (ed.), D’un monde à l’autre. Cairo, 247-262.
Morales A. 2017. The transmission of the Pyramid Texts of Nut. Hamburg.
Morales, A. 2013. The transmission of the Pyramid Texts into the Middle Kingdom. Philadelphia.
Morales, A. 2018. Unraveling the thread. In S. Bickel (ed.), Studies in ancient Egyptian funerary literature. Leuven.
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